The rise of digital innovators in financial services presents a significant threat to the traditional business models of retail banks. Historically, they have generated value by combining different businesses, such as financing, investing, and transactions, which serve their customers’ broad financial needs over the long haul. Banks offer basic services, such as low-cost checking, and so-called sticky customer relationships allow them to earn attractive margins in other areas, including investment management, creditcard fees, or foreign-exchange transactions

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